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PySimpleGUI

Supports both Python 2.7 & 3 when using tkinter

Supports both PySide2 and PyQt5 (limited support)

Effortlessly move across tkinter, Qt, WxPython, and the Web (Remi) by changing only the import statement

The only way to write both desktop and web based GUIs at the same time

Python Version

Python Version

Python Version

Python Version

Python Version

Announcements of Latest Developments

ReadTheDocs

COOKBOOK!

Brief Tutorial

Latest Demos and Master Branch on GitHub

Docs in PDF Format

Repl.it Home for PySimpleGUI

Super-simple GUI to use... Powerfully customizable

Home of the 1-line custom GUI & 1-line progress meter

The native GUI framework for perfectionists with deadlines

Actively developed and supported (It's 2019 and still going strong)

Note regarding Python versions

As of 9/25/2018 both Python 3 and Python 2.7 are supported! The Python 3 version is named PySimpleGUI. The Python 2.7 version is PySimpleGUI27. They are installed separately and the imports are different. See instructions in Installation section for more info.

Qt Version

Check out the new PySimpleGUI port to the Qt GUI Framework. You can learn more on the PySimpleGUIQt GitHub site. There is a separate Readme file for the Qt version that you'll find there.

Give it a shot if you're looking for something a bit more "modern". PySimpleGUIQt is currently in Alpha. All of the widgets are operational but some may not yet be full-featured. If one is missing and your project needs it, log an Issue and you'll likely get priority support.

Here is a summary of the Qt Elements

scrolling graphics

Are there enough things on there to cover your GUI solution?

Source code compatibility

Your source code is completely portable from one platform to another by simply changing the import statement.

WxPython Version

PySimpleGUIWx GitHub site. There is a separate Readme file for the WxPython version.

Started in late December 2018 PySimpleGUIWx started with the SystemTray Icon feature. This enabled the package to have one fully functioning feature that can be used along with tkinter to provide a complete program. The System Tray feature is complete and working very well.

The Windowing code is coming together with Reads now operational which means Popups work. The elements are getting completed on a regular basis. 3 more were just checked in. At least 1 new element is getting completed a week.

Web Version (Remi)

PySimpleGUIWeb GitHub site. There is a separate Readme file for the Web version.

New for 2019, PySimpleGUIWeb. This is an exciting development! PySimpleGUI in your Web Browser!

The underlying framework supplying the web capability is the Python package Remi. https://github.com/dddomodossola/remi Remi provides the widgets as well as a web server for you to connect to. It's an exiting new platform to be running on and has temporarily bumped the WxPython port from the highest priority. PySimpleGUIWeb is the current high priority project.

Read on and you'll understand even more why this is an important project...

repl.it Version

Want to really get your mind blown? Check out this PySimpleGUI program running in your web browser.

Thanks to the magic of repl.it and Remi it's possible to run PySimpleGUI code in a browser window without having Python running on your computer.

The programs you write using repl.it will automatically download and install the latest PySimpleGUIWeb from PyPI onto a virtual Python environment. All that is required is to type import PySimpleGUIWeb you'll have a Python environment up and running with the latest PyPI release of PySimpleGUIWeb.

This is an exciting new development that's opening up all kinds of possibilities for new ways to program and learn PySimpleGUI. Stayed tuned, much more to be posted about this in the near future.

Educators in particular should be interested. Students can not only post their homework easily for their teacher to access, but teachers can also run the students programs online. No downloading needed. Run it and check the results.

Depending on how you're viewing this document, you may or may not see an embedded browser window below that is running PySimpleGUI code.

Support

PySimpleGUI is an active project. Bugs are fixed, features are added, often. Should you run into trouble, open an issue on the GitHub site and you'll receive help by someone in the community.

Platforms

It's surprising that Python GUI code is completely cross platform from Windows to Mac to Linux. No source code changes. This is true for both PySimpleGUI and PySimpleGUIQt.

However, Macs suck. They suck on tkinter in particular. The "Look and feel" calls are disabled for Macs. Colored buttons in particular are broken. Not in the PySimpleGUI code, of course. It's mostly because Macs suck. Consider using Qt instead of tkinter on the Mac. Or, if using tkinter, bring your own button images.


Looking for a GUI package? Are you

Look no further, you've found your GUI package.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

sg.Popup('Hello From PySimpleGUI!', 'This is the shortest GUI program ever!')

hello world

Or how about a custom GUI in 1 line of code?

import PySimpleGUI as sg

event, (filename,) = sg.Window('Get filename example'). Layout([[sg.Text('Filename')], [sg.Input(), sg.FileBrowse()], [sg.OK(), sg.Cancel()] ]).Read()

get filename

Build beautiful customized windows that fit your specific problem. Let PySimpleGUI solve your GUI problem while you solve your real problems. Look through the Cookbook, find a matching recipe, copy, paste, run within minutes. This is the process PySimpleGUI was designed to facilitate.

Your windows don't have to look like "boring" old windows. Add a few custom graphics to your windows to polish things up.

batterup2

uno_final

PySimpleGUI wraps tkinter or Qt so that you get all the same widgets as you would tkinter/Qt, but you interact with them in a more friendly way. It does the layout and boilerplate code for you and presents you with a simple, efficient interface.

everything dark theme

Perhaps you're looking for a way to interact with your Raspberry Pi in a more friendly way. The same for shown as on Pi (roughly the same)

raspberry pi everything demo

In addition to a primary GUI, you can add a Progress Meter to your code with ONE LINE of code. Slide this line into any of your for loops and get a nice meter:

OneLineProgressMeter('My meter title', current_value, max value, 'key')

easyprogressmeter

It's simple to show animated GIFs.

loading animation

How about embedding a game inside of a GUI? This game of Pong is written in tkinter and then dropped into the PySimpleGUI window creating a game that has an accompanying GUI.

pong

Combining PySimpleGUI with PyInstaller creates something truly remarkable and special, a Python program that looks like a Windows WinForms application. This application with working menu was created in 20 lines of Python code. It is a single .EXE file that launches straight into the screen you see. And more good news, the only icon you see on the taskbar is the window itself... there is no pesky shell window.

menu demo

Background

I was frustrated by having to deal with the dos prompt when I had a powerful Windows machine right in front of me. Why is it SO difficult to do even the simplest of input/output to a window in Python??

There are a number of 'easy to use' Python GUIs, but they were too limited for my requirements. PySimpleGUI aims for the same simplicity found in packages like EasyGUIand WxSimpleGUI , both really handy but limited, and adds the ability to define your own layouts. This ability to make your own windows using a large palette of widgets is but one difference between the existing "simple" packages and PySimpleGUI.

With a simple GUI, it becomes practical to "associate" .py files with the python interpreter on Windows. Double click a py file and up pops a GUI window, a more pleasant experience than opening a dos Window and typing a command line.

The PySimpleGUI package is focused on the developer.

Create a custom GUI with as little and as simple code as possible.

This was the primary focus used to create PySimpleGUI.

"Do it in a Python-like way"

was the second.

Features

While simple to use, PySimpleGUI has significant depth to be explored by more advanced programmers. The feature set goes way beyond the requirements of a beginner programmer, and into the required features needed for complex GUIs.

Features of PySimpleGUI include:

An example of many widgets used on a single window. A little further down you'll find the 21 lines of code required to create this complex window. Try it if you don't believe it. Install PySimpleGUI then :

Start Python, copy and paste the code below into the >>> prompt and hit enter. This will pop up...

everything example

import PySimpleGUI as sg

layout = [[sg.Text('All graphic widgets in one window!', size=(30, 1), font=("Helvetica", 25), text_color='blue')],
    [sg.Text('Here is some text.... and a place to enter text')],
    [sg.InputText()],
    [sg.Checkbox('My first checkbox!'), sg.Checkbox('My second checkbox!', default=True)],
    [sg.Radio('My first Radio!     ', "RADIO1", default=True), sg.Radio('My second Radio!', "RADIO1")],
    [sg.Multiline(default_text='This is the default Text shoulsd you decide not to type anything',)],
[sg.InputCombo(['Combobox 1', 'Combobox 2'], size=(20, 3)),
    sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='h', size=(35, 20), default_value=85)],
[sg.Listbox(values=['Listbox 1', 'Listbox 2', 'Listbox 3'], size=(30, 6)),
    sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='v', size=(10, 20), default_value=25),
    sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='v', size=(10, 20), default_value=75),
    sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='v', size=(10, 20), default_value=10)],
[sg.Text('_'  * 100, size=(70, 1))],
[sg.Text('Choose Source and Destination Folders', size=(35, 1))],
[sg.Text('Source Folder', size=(15, 1), auto_size_text=False, justification='right'), sg.InputText('Source'),
    sg.FolderBrowse()],
[sg.Text('Destination Folder', size=(15, 1), auto_size_text=False, justification='right'), sg.InputText('Dest'),
    sg.FolderBrowse()],
[sg.Submit(), sg.Cancel(), sg.Button('Customized', button_color=('white', 'green'))]]

event, values  = sg.Window('Everything bagel', layout, auto_size_text=True, default_element_size=(40, 1)).Read()

Design Goals

Copy, Paste, Run.

PySimpleGUI's goal with the API is to be easy on the programmer, and to function in a Python-like way. Since GUIs are visual, it was desirable for the code to visually match what's on the screen. By providing a significant amount of documentation and an easy to use Cookbook, it's possible to see your first GUI within 5 minutes of beginning the installation.

Be Pythonic

Be Pythonic... Attempted to use language constructs in a natural way and to exploit some of Python's interesting features. Python's lists and optional parameters make PySimpleGUI work smoothly.

Lofty Goals

Change Python

The hope is not that this package will become part of the Python Standard Library.

The hope is that Python will become the go-to language for creating GUI programs that run on Windows, Mac, and Linux for all levels of developer.

The hope is that beginners that are interested in graphic design will have an easy way to express themselves, right from the start of their Python experience.

There is a noticeable gap in the Python GUI solution. Fill that gap and who knows what will happen.

Maybe there's no "there there". Or maybe a simple GUI API will enable Python to dominate yet another computing discipline like it has so many others. This is my attempt to find out.

Getting Started with PySimpleGUI

Installing PySimpleGUI

Installing Python 3

pip install --upgrade PySimpleGUI

On some systems you need to run pip3.

pip3 install --upgrade PySimpleGUI

On a Raspberry Pi, this is should work:

sudo pip3 install --upgrade pysimplegui

Some users have found that upgrading required using an extra flag on the pip --no-cache-dir.

pip install --upgrade --no-cache-dir

On some versions of Linux you will need to first install pip. Need the Chicken before you can get the Egg (get it... Egg?)

sudo apt install python3-pip

If for some reason you are unable to install using pip, don't worry, you can still import PySimpleGUI by downloading the file PySimleGUI.py and placing it in your folder along with the application that is importing it.

tkinter is a requirement for PySimpleGUI (the only requirement). Some OS variants, such as Ubuntu, do not some with tkinter already installed. If you get an error similar to:

ImportError: No module named tkinter

then you need to install tkinter.

For python 2.7

sudo apt-get install python-tk

For python 3 sudo apt-get install python3-tk

More information about installing tkinter can be found here: https://www.techinfected.net/2015/09/how-to-install-and-use-tkinter-in-ubuntu-debian-linux-mint.html

Installing for Python 2.7

pip install --upgrade PySimpleGUI27 or pip2 install --upgrade PySimpleGUI27

You may need to also install "future" for version 2.7

pip install future or pip2 install future

Python 2.7 support is relatively new and the bugs are still being worked out. I'm unsure what may need to be done to install tkinter for Python 2.7. Will update this readme when more info is available

Like above, you may have to install either pip or tkinter. To do this on Python 2.7:

sudo apt install python-pip

sudo apt install python-tkinter

Testing your installation

Once you have installed, or copied the .py file to your app folder, you can test the installation using python. At the command prompt start up Python.

Instructions for Python 2.7:

>>> import PySimpleGUI27
>>> PySimpleGUI27.main()

Instructions for Python 3:

>>> import PySimpleGUI
>>> PySimpleGUI.main()

You will see a sample window in the center of your screen. If it's not installed correctly you are likely to get an error message during one of those commands

Here is the window you should see:

sample window

Prerequisites

Python 2.7 or Python 3 tkinter

PySimpleGUI Runs on all Python3 platforms that have tkinter running on them. It has been tested on Windows, Mac, Linux, Raspberry Pi. Even runs on pypy3.

EXE file creation

If you wish to create an EXE from your PySimpleGUI application, you will need to install PyInstaller. There are instructions on how to create an EXE at the bottom of this ReadMe

Using - Python 3

To use in your code, simply import.... import PySimpleGUI as sg

Then use either "high level" API calls or build your own windows.

sg.Popup('This is my first Popup')

first popup

Yes, it's just that easy to have a window appear on the screen using Python. With PySimpleGUI, making a custom window appear isn't much more difficult. The goal is to get you running on your GUI within minutes, not hours nor days.

Using - Python 2.7

Those using Python 2.7 will import a different module name import PySimpleGUI27 as sg

Code Samples Assume Python 3

While all of the code examples you will see in this Readme and the Cookbook assume Python 3 and thus have an import PySimpleGUI at the top, you can run all of this code on Python 2.7 by changing the import statement to import PySimpleGUI27


APIs

PySimpleGUI can be broken down into 2 types of API's: * High Level single call functions (The Popup calls) * Custom window functions

Python Language Features

There are a number of Python language features that PySimpleGUI utilizes heavily for API access that should be understood... * Variable number of arguments to a function call * Optional parameters to a function call * Dictionaries

Variable Number of Arguments

The "High Level" API calls that output values take a variable number of arguments so that they match a "print" statement as much as possible. The idea is to make it simple for the programmer to output as many items as desired and in any format. The user need not convert the variables to be output into the strings. The PySimpleGUI functions do that for the user.

sg.Popup('Variable number of parameters example', var1, var2, "etc")

Each new item begins on a new line in the Popup

snap0179

Optional Parameters to a Function Call

This feature of the Python language is utilized heavily as a method of customizing windows and window Elements. Rather than requiring the programmer to specify every possible option for a widget, instead only the options the caller wants to override are specified.

Here is the function definition for the Popup function. The details aren't important. What is important is seeing that there is a long list of potential tweaks that a caller can make. However, they don't have to be specified on each and every call.

def Popup(*args,
           button_color=None,
           button_type=MSG_BOX_OK,
           auto_close=False,
           auto_close_duration=None,
           icon=DEFAULT_WINDOW_ICON,
           line_width=MESSAGE_BOX_LINE_WIDTH,
           font=None):

If the caller wanted to change the button color to be black on yellow, the call would look something like this: sg.Popup('This box has a custom button color', button_color=('black', 'yellow'))

snap0180

Dictionaries

Dictionaries are used by more advanced PySimpleGUI users. You'll know that dictionaries are being used if you see a key parameter on any Element. Dictionaries are used in 2 ways: 1. To identify values when a window is read 2. To identify Elements so that they can be "updated"


High Level API Calls - Popup's

"High level calls" are those that start with "Popup". They are the most basic form of communications with the user. They are named after the type of window they create, a pop-up window. These windows are meant to be short lived while, either delivering information or collecting it, and then quickly disappearing.

Think of the Popup call as the GUI equivalent of a print statement. It's your way of displaying results to a user in the windowed world. Each call to Popup will create a new Popup window.

Popup calls are normally blocking. your program will stop executing until the user has closed the Popup window. A non-blocking window of Popup discussed in the async section.

Just like a print statement, you can pass any number of arguments you wish. They will all be turned into strings and displayed in the popup window.

There are a number of Popup output calls, each with a slightly different look (e.g. different button labels).

The list of Popup output functions are: - Popup - PopupOk - PopupYesNo - PopupCancel - PopupOkCancel - PopupError - PopupTimed, PopupAutoClose - PopupNoWait, PopupNonBlocking

The trailing portion of the function name after Popup indicates what buttons are shown. PopupYesNo shows a pair of button with Yes and No on them. PopupCancel has a Cancel button, etc.

While these are "output" windows, they do collect input in the form of buttons. The Popup functions return the button that was clicked. If the Ok button was clicked, then Popup returns the string 'Ok'. If the user clicked the X button to close the window, then the button value returned is None.

The function PopupTimed or PopupAutoClose are popup windows that will automatically close after come period of time.

Here is a quick-reference showing how the Popup calls look.

sg.Popup('Popup')  # Shows OK button
sg.PopupOk('PopupOk')  # Shows OK button
sg.PopupYesNo('PopupYesNo')  # Shows Yes and No buttons
sg.PopupCancel('PopupCancel')  # Shows Cancelled button
sg.PopupOKCancel('PopupOKCancel')  # Shows OK and Cancel buttons
sg.PopupError('PopupError')  # Shows red error button
sg.PopupTimed('PopupTimed')  # Automatically closes
sg.PopupAutoClose('PopupAutoClose')  # Same as PopupTimed

Preview of popups:

Popup(*args,  Variable number of arguments you want to display
    button_color=None, Color of buttons (text_color, background_color)
    background_color=None, Color of background
    text_color=None, Color of text
    button_type=POPUP_BUTTONS_OK, Type of button layout
    auto_close=False, If True window will automatically close
    auto_close_duration=None, Number of seconds for autoclose
    non_blocking=False, If True returns immediately
    icon=DEFAULT_WINDOW_ICON, Icon to use on the taskbar
    line_width=None, Width of lines in characters
    font=None, Font to use for characters
    no_titlebar=False, If True no titlebar will be shown
    grab_anywhere=False, If True can move window by grabbing anywhere
    keep_on_top=False, If True window will be on top of other windows
    location=(None,None)): (x,y) coordinates to show the window

The other output Popups are variations on parameters. Usually the button_type parameter is the primary one changed.

The choices for button_type are:

POPUP_BUTTONS_YES_NO
POPUP_BUTTONS_CANCELLED
POPUP_BUTTONS_ERROR
POPUP_BUTTONS_OK_CANCEL
POPUP_BUTTONS_OK
POPUP_BUTTONS_NO_BUTTONS

Note that you should not call Popup yourself with different button_types. Rely on the Popup function named that sets that value for you. For example PopupYesNo will set the button type to POPUP_BUTTONS_YES_NO for you.

Scrolled Output

There is a scrolled version of Popups should you have a lot of information to display.

PopupScrolled(*args, button_color=None, yes_no=False, auto_close=False, auto_close_duration=None, size=(None, None), location=(None, None), title=None, non_blocking=False)

Typical usage:

sg.PopupScrolled(my_text)

scrolledtextbox 2

The PopupScrolled will auto-fit the window size to the size of the text. Specify None in the height field of a size parameter to get auto-sized height.
This call will create a scrolled box 80 characters wide and a height dependent upon the number of lines of text.
sg.PopupScrolled(my_text, size=(80, None))
Note that the default max number of lines before scrolling happens is set to 50. At 50 lines the scrolling will begin.
If non_blocking parameter is set, then the call will not blocking waiting for the user to close the window. Execution will immediately return to the user. Handy when you want to dump out debug info without disrupting the program flow.

PopupNoWait

The Popup call PopupNoWait or PopupNonBlocking will create a popup window and then immediately return control back to you. All other popup functions will block, waiting for the user to close the popup window.
This function is very handy for when you're debugging and want to display something as output but don't want to change the programs's overall timing by blocking. Think of it like a print statement. There are no return values on one of these Popups.

There are Popup calls for single-item inputs. These follow the pattern of Popup followed by Get and then the type of item to get. There are 3 of these input Popups to choose from, each with settings enabling customization. - PopupGetText - get a single line of text - PopupGetFile - get a filename - PopupGetFolder - get a folder name

Use these Popups instead of making a custom window to get one data value, call the Popup input function to get the item from the user. If you find the parameters are unable to create the kind of window you are looking for, then it's time for you to create your own window.

PopupGetText

Use this Popup to get a line of text from the user.

PopupGetText(message,The message you wish to display with the input field
        default_text='', Text to initially fill into the input field
        password_char='', Passwork character if this is a password field
        size=(None,None), Size of the window
        button_color=None, Color to use for buttons (foreground, background)
        background_color=None, Background color for window
        text_color=None, Text color for window
        icon=DEFAULT_WINDOW_ICON, Icon to display on taskbar
        font=None, Font to use for text
        no_titlebar=False, If True no titlebar will be shown
        grab_anywhere=False, If True can grab anywhere to move the window
        keep_on_top=False, If True window will stay on top of other windows
        location=(None,None))  Location on screen to display window
import PySimpleGUI as sg
text = sg.PopupGetText('Title', 'Please input something')
sg.Popup('Results', 'The value returned from PopupGetText', text)

popupgettext

popup gettext response

PopupGetFile

Gets a filename from the user. There are options to configure the type of dialog box to show. Normally an "Open File" dialog box is shown.

PopupGetFile(message, Message to show in the window
        default_path='', Path browsing should start from
        default_extension='', Which filetype is the default
        save_as=False, Determines which dialog box stype to show
        file_types=(("ALL Files", "*.*"),), Which filetypes are displayed
        no_window=False, if True no window is displayed except the dialog box
        size=(None,None), Size of window
        button_color=None, Color of buttons
        background_color=None, Color of window background
        text_color=None, Color of text in window
        icon=DEFAULT_WINDOW_ICON, Icon to show on taskbar
        font=None, Font to use
        no_titlebar=False, If True does not display a titlebar
        grab_anywhere=False, if True can grab window anywhere to move it
        keep_on_top=False, if True window will be on top of others
        location=(None,None)) Location on screen to show window

If configured as an Open File Popup then (save_as is not True) the dialog box will look like this.
snag-0060

If you set the parameter save_As to True, then the dialog box looks like this:

snag-0061

If you choose a filename that already exists, you'll get a warning popup box asking if it's OK. You can also specify a file that doesn't exist. With an "Open" dialog box you cannot choose a non-existing file.

A typical call produces this window.

text = sg.PopupGetFile('Please enter a file name')
sg.Popup('Results', 'The value returned from PopupGetFile', text)

popupgetfile

PopupGetFolder

The window created to get a folder name looks the same as the get a file name. The difference is in what the browse button does. PopupGetFile shows an Open File dialog box while PopupGetFolder shows an Open Folder dialog box.

PopupGetFolder(message,  Message to display in window
        default_path='',  Path to start browsing
        no_window=False,  If True no window will be shown
        size=(None,None), Size of window
        button_color=None, Color of buttons
        background_color=None, Background color of window
        text_color=None,  Color of window text
        icon=DEFAULT_WINDOW_ICON, Icon to show on taskbar
        font=None,  Font to use for window
        no_titlebar=False,  If True no titlebar will be shown
        grab_anywhere=False,  If True can grab anywhere on window to move
        keep_on_top=False,  If True window will be on top
        location=(None, None))  Location on screen to create window

This is a typpical call

    text = sg.PopupGetFolder('Please enter a folder name')
    sg.Popup('Results', 'The value returned from PopupGetFolder', text)

popupgetfolder

PopupAnimated

ring

The animated Popup enables you to easily display a "loading" style animation specified through a GIF file that is either stored in a file or a base64 variable.

def PopupAnimated(image_source,
        message=None,
        background_color=None,
        text_color=None,
        font=None,
        no_titlebar=True,
        grab_anywhere=True,
        keep_on_top=True,
        location=(None, None),
        alpha_channel=.8,
        time_between_frames=0)
name meaning
image_source The GIF file specified as a string filename or a base64 variable
message optional text message to be displayed under the animation
background_color the background color to use for the window and all of the other parts of the window
text_color color to use for optional text
font font to use for the optional text
no_titlebar no titlebar window setting
location location to show the window
alpha_channel alpha channel to use for the window
time_between_frames amount of time in milliseconds to use between frames

To close animated popups, call PopupAnimated with image_source=None. This will close all of the currently open PopupAnimated windows.

Progress Meters!

We all have loops in our code. 'Isn't it joyful waiting, watching a counter scrolling past in a text window? How about one line of code to get a progress meter, that contains statistics about your code?

OneLineProgressMeter(title,
            current_value,
            max_value,
            key,
            *args,
            orientation=None,
            bar_color=DEFAULT_PROGRESS_BAR_COLOR,
            button_color=None,
            size=DEFAULT_PROGRESS_BAR_SIZE,
            border_width=DEFAULT_PROGRESS_BAR_BORDER_WIDTH):

Here's the one-line Progress Meter in action!

for i in range(1,10000):
    sg.OneLineProgressMeter('My Meter', i+1, 10000, 'key','Optional message')

That line of code resulted in this window popping up and updating.

preogress meter

A meter AND fun statistics to watch while your machine grinds away, all for the price of 1 line of code. With a little trickery you can provide a way to break out of your loop using the Progress Meter window. The cancel button results in a False return value from OneLineProgressMeter. It normally returns True.

Be sure and add one to your loop counter so that your counter goes from 1 to the max value. If you do not add one, your counter will never hit the max value. Instead it will go from 0 to max-1.

Debug Output

Another call in the 'Easy' families of APIs is EasyPrint. It will output to a debug window. If the debug window isn't open, then the first call will open it. No need to do anything but stick a 'print' call in your code. You can even replace your 'print' calls with calls to EasyPrint by simply sticking the statement

print = sg.EasyPrint

at the top of your code.

There are a number of names for the same EasyPrint function. Print is one of the better ones to use as it's easy to remember. It is simply print with a capital P.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

for i in range(100):
    sg.Print(i)

snap0125

Or if you didn't want to change your code:

import PySimpleGUI as sg

print=sg.Print
for i in range(100):
print(i)

Just like the standard print call, EasyPrint supports the sep and end keyword arguments. Other names that can be used to call EasyPrint include Print, eprint, If you want to close the window, call the function EasyPrintClose.

You can change the size of the debug window using the SetOptions call with the debug_win_size parameter.

There is an option to tell PySimpleGUI to reroute all of your stdout and stderr output to this window. To do so call EasyPrint with the parameter do_not_reroute_stdout set to True. After calling it once with this parameter set to True, all future calls to a normalprint will go to the debug window.

If you close the debug window it will re-open the next time you Print to it.


Custom window API Calls (Your First window)

This is the FUN part of the programming of this GUI. In order to really get the most out of the API, you should be using an IDE that supports auto complete or will show you the definition of the function. This will make customizing go smoother.

This first section on custom windows is for your typical, blocking, non-persistent window. By this I mean, when you "show" the window, the function will not return until the user has clicked a button or closed the window. When this happens, the window will be automatically closed.

Two other types of windows exist. 1. Persistent window - rather than closing on button clicks, the show window function returns and the window continues to be visible. This is good for applications like a chat window. 2. Asynchronous window - the trickiest of the lot. Great care must be exercised. Examples are an MP3 player or status dashboard. Async windows are updated (refreshed) on a periodic basis.

It's both not enjoyable nor helpful to immediately jump into tweaking each and every little thing available to you.

The window Designer

The good news to newcomers to GUI programming is that PySimpleGUI has a window designer. Better yet, the window designer requires no training, no downloads, and everyone knows how to use it.

gui0_1

It's a manual process, but if you follow the instructions, it will take only a minute to do and the result will be a nice looking GUI. The steps you'll take are: 1. Sketch your GUI on paper 2. Divide your GUI up into rows 3. Label each Element with the Element name 4. Write your Python code using the labels as pseudo-code

Let's take a couple of examples.

Enter a number.... Popular beginner programs are often based on a game or logic puzzle that requires the user to enter something, like a number. The "high-low" answer game comes to mind where you try to guess the number based on high or low tips.

Step 1- Sketch the GUI gui1_1

Step 2 - Divide into rows

gui2_1

Step 3 - Label elements

gui6_1

Step 4 - Write the code The code we're writing is the layout of the GUI itself. This tutorial only focuses on getting the window code written, not the stuff to display it, get results.

We have only 1 element on the first row, some text. Rows are written as a "list of elements", so we'll need [ ] to make a list. Here's the code for row 1

[ sg.Text('Enter a number') ]

Row 2 has 1 elements, an input field.

[ sg.Input() ]

Row 3 has an OK button

[ sg.OK() ]

Now that we've got the 3 rows defined, they are put into a list that represents the entire window.

layout = [ [sg.Text('Enter a Number')],
            [sg.Input()],
            [sg.OK()] ]

Finally we can put it all together into a program that will display our window.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

layout = [[sg.Text('Enter a Number')],
            [sg.Input()],
            [sg.OK()] ]

event, (number,) = sg.Window('Enter a number example', layout).Read()

sg.Popup(event, number)

Example 2 - Get a filename

Let's say you've got a utility you've written that operates on some input file and you're ready to use a GUI to enter than filename rather than the command line. Follow the same steps as the previous example - draw your window on paper, break it up into rows, label the elements.

gui4_1 gui5_1

Writing the code for this one is just as straightforward. There is one tricky thing, that browse for a file button. Thankfully PySimpleGUI takes care of associating it with the input field next to it. As a result, the code looks almost exactly like the window on the paper.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

layout = [[sg.Text('Filename')],
            [sg.Input(), sg.FileBrowse()],
            [sg.OK(), sg.Cancel()] ]

event, (number,) = sg.Window('Get filename example', layout).Read()

sg.Popup(event, number)

Read on for detailed instructions on the calls that show the window and return your results.

Copy these design patterns!

All of your PySimpleGUI programs will utilize one of these 2 design patterns depending on the type of window you're implementing.

Pattern 1 - "One-shot Window" - Read into list or dictionary (The Most Common Pattern)

This will be the most common pattern you'll follow if you are not using an "event loop" (not reading the window multiple times). The window is read and closes.

It's unusual to assign the values returned from the read call directly into user variables. Usually the variables are grouped together into a list or dictionary of multiple return values.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

window_rows = [[sg.Text('SHA-1 and SHA-256 Hashes for the file')],
                 [sg.InputText(), sg.FileBrowse()],
                 [sg.Submit(), sg.Cancel()]]

window = sg.Window('SHA-1 & 256 Hash', window_rows)

event, values = window.Read()
window.Close()

source_filename = values[0]

Pattern 2 A - Persistent window (multiple reads using an event loop)

Some of the more advanced programs operate with the window remaining visible on the screen. Input values are collected, but rather than closing the window, it is kept visible acting as a way to both output information to the user and gather input data.

This code will present a window and will print values until the user clicks the exit button or closes window using an X.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

layout = [[sg.Text('Persistent window')],
          [sg.Input(do_not_clear=True)],
          [sg.Button('Read'), sg.Exit()]]

window = sg.Window('Window that stays open', layout)

while True:
    event, values = window.Read()
    if event is None or event == 'Exit':
        break
    print(event, values)

window.Close()

Pattern 2 B - Persistent window (multiple reads using an event loop + updates data in window)

This is a slightly more complex, but maybe more realistic version that reads input from the user and displays that input as text in the window. Your program is likely to be doing both of those activities so this will give you a big jump-start.

Do not worry yet what all of these statements mean. Just copy it so you can begin to play with it, make some changes. Experiment to see how thing work.

A final note... the parameter do_not_clear in the input call determines the action of the input field after a button event. If this value is True, the input value remains visible following button clicks. If False, then the input field is CLEARED of whatever was input. If you are building a "Form" type of window with data entry, you likely want False, the default setting (you can remove the parameter completely).

import sys
if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
    import PySimpleGUI as sg
else:
    import PySimpleGUI27 as sg

layout = [[sg.Text('Your typed chars appear here:'), sg.Text('', key='_OUTPUT_') ],
          [sg.Input(do_not_clear=True, key='_IN_')],
          [sg.Button('Show'), sg.Button('Exit')]]

window = sg.Window('Window Title', layout)

while True:                 # Event Loop
  event, values = window.Read()
  print(event, values)
  if event is None or event == 'Exit':
      break
  if event == 'Show':
      # change the "output" element to be the value of "input" element
      window.Element('_OUTPUT_').Update(values['_IN_'])

window.Close()

How GUI Programming in Python Should Look? At least for beginners ?

While one goal was making it simple to create a GUI another just as important goal was to do it in a Pythonic manner. Whether it achieved these goals is debatable, but it was an attempt just the same.

The key to custom windows in PySimpleGUI is to view windows as ROWS of GUI Elements. Each row is specified as a list of these Elements. Put the rows together and you've got a window. This means the GUI is defined as a series of Lists, a Pythonic way of looking at things.

Let's dissect this little program

import PySimpleGUI as sg

layout = [[sg.Text('Rename files or folders')],
            [sg.Text('Source for Folders', size=(15, 1)), sg.InputText(), sg.FolderBrowse()],
            [sg.Text('Source for Files ', size=(15, 1)), sg.InputText(), sg.FolderBrowse()],
            [sg.Submit(), sg.Cancel()]]

window = sg.Window('Rename Files or Folders', layout)

event, values = window.Read()

snap0131

Let's agree the window has 4 rows.

The first row only has text that reads Rename files or folders

The second row has 3 elements in it. First the text Source for Folders, then an input field, then a browse button.

Now let's look at how those 2 rows and the other two row from Python code:

layout = [[sg.Text('Rename files or folders')],
            [sg.Text('Source for Folders', size=(15, 1)), sg.InputText(), sg.FolderBrowse()],
            [sg.Text('Source for Files ', size=(15, 1)), sg.InputText(), sg.FolderBrowse()],
            [sg.Submit(), sg.Cancel()]]

See how the source code mirrors the layout? You simply make lists for each row, then submit that table to PySimpleGUI to show and get values from.

And what about those return values? Most people simply want to show a window, get the input values and do something with them. So why break up the code into button callbacks, etc, when I simply want my window's input values to be given to me.

For return values the window is scanned from top to bottom, left to right. Each field that's an input field will occupy a spot in the return values.

In our example window, there are 2 fields, so the return values from this window will be a list with 2 values in it.

event, values = window.Read()
folder_path, file_path = values

In one statement we both show the window and read the user's inputs. In the next the list of return values is split into individual variables folder_path and file_path.

Isn't this what a Python programmer looking for a GUI wants? Something easy to work with to get the values and move on to the rest of the program, where the real action is taking place. Why write pages of GUI code when the same layout can be achieved with PySimpleGUI in 3 or 4 lines of code. 4 lines or 40? Most would choose 4.

Return values

As of version 2.8 there are 2 forms of return values, list and dictionary.

Two Return Values

All Window Read calls return 2 values. By convention a read statement is written:

event, values = window.Read()

You don't HAVE to write your reads in this way. You can name your variables however you want. But if you want to code them in a way that other programmers using PySimpleGUI are used to, then use these statements.

Events

The first parameter event describes why the read completed. Events are one of these:

For all Windows:

For Windows that have specifically enabled these. Please see the appropriate section in this document to learn about how to enable these and what the event return values are.

Most of the time the event will be a button click or the window was closed.

Window closed event

Another convention to follow is the check for windows being closed with an X. This is an important event to catch. If you don't check for this and you attempt to use the window, your program will crash. Please check for closed window and exit your program gracefully.

To check for a closed window use this line of code:

if event is None:

Putting it all together we end up with an "event loop" that looks something like this:

while True:
    event, values = window.Read()
    if event is None:
        break

Button Click Events

By default buttons will always return a click event, or in the case of realtime buttons, a button down event. You don't have to do anything to enable button clicks. To disable the events, disable the button using its Update method.

You can enable an additional "Button Modified" event by setting enable_events=True in the Button call. These events are triggered when something 'writes' to a button, usually it's because the button is listed as a "target" in another button.

The button value from a Read call will be one of 2 values: 1. The Button's text - Default 2. The Button's key - If a key is specified

If a button has a key set when it was created, then that key will be returned. If no key is set, then the button text is returned. If no button was clicked, but the window returned anyway, the event value is None.

None is returned when the user clicks the X to close a window.

If your window has an event loop where it is read over and over, remember to give your user an "out". You should always check for a None value and it's a good practice to provide an Exit button of some kind. Thus design patterns often resemble this Event Loop:

while True:
    event, values = window.Read()
    if event is None or event == 'Quit':
        break

Element Events

Some elements are capable of generating events when something happens to them. For example, when a slider is moved, or list item clicked on or table row clicked on. These events are not enabled by default. To enable events for an Element, set the parameter enable_events=True. This is the same as the older click_submits parameter. You will find the click_submits parameter still in the function definition. You can continue to use it. They are the same setting. An 'or' of the two values is used. In the future, click_submits will be removed so please migrate your code to using enable_events.

name events
InputText any change
Combo item chosen
Option menu item chosen
Listbox selection changed
Radio selection changed
Checkbox selection changed
Spinner new item selected
Multiline any change
Text clicked
Status Bar clicked
Graph clicked
TabGroup tab clicked
Slider slider moved
Table row selected
Tree node selected
ButtonMenu menu item chosen
Right click menu menu item chosen

Other Events

You will receive the key for the MenuBar and ButtonMenu. Use that key to read the value in the return values dictionary. The value shown will be the full text plus key for the menu item chosen. Remember that you can put keys onto menu items. You will get the text and the key together as you defined it in the menu definition.

Right Click menu item chosen

Unlike menu bar and button menus, you will directly receive the menu item text and its key value. You will not do a dictionary lookup to get the value. It is the event code returned from WindowRead().

Windows - keyboard, mouse scroll wheel

Windows are capable of returning keyboard events. These are returned as either a single character or a string if it's a special key. Experiment is all I can say. The mouse scroll wheel events are also strings. Put a print in your code to see what's returned.

Timeouts

If you set a timeout parameter in your read, then the system TIMEOUT_KEY will be returned. If you specified your own timeout key in the Read call then that value will be what's returned instead.

The values Variable - Return values as a list

The second parameter from a Read call is either a list or a dictionary of the input fields on the Window.

By default return values are a list of values, one entry for each input field.

Each of the Elements that are Input Elements will have a value in the list of return values. You can unpack your GUI directly into the variables you want to use.

event, (filename, folder1, folder2, should_overwrite) = sg.Window('My title', window_rows).Read()

Or, more commonly, you can unpack the return results separately.

event, values = sg.Window('My title', window_rows).Read()
event, value_list = window.Read()
value1 = value_list[0]
value2 = value_list[1]
     ...

However, this method isn't good when you have a lot of input fields. If you insert a new element into your window then you will have to shuffle your unpacks down, modifying each of the statements to reference value_list[x].

The more common / advanced method is to request your values be returned as a dictionary.

values Variable - Return values as a dictionary

For those of you that have not encountered a Python dictionary, don't freak out! Just copy and paste the sample code and modify it. Follow this design pattern and you'll be fine. And you might learn something along the way.

For windows longer than 3 or 4 fields you will want to use a dictionary to help you organize your return values. In almost all (if not all) of the demo programs you'll find the return values being passed as a dictionary. It is not a difficult concept to grasp, the syntax is easy to understand, and it makes for very readable code.

The most common window read statement you'll encounter looks something like this:

window = sg.Window("My title", layout).Read()

To use a dictionary, you will need to: * Mark each input element you wish to be in the dictionary with the keyword key.

If any element in the window has a key, then all of the return values are returned via a dictionary. If some elements do not have a key, then they are numbered starting at zero.

Let's take a look at your first dictionary-based window.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

layout = [
            [sg.Text('Please enter your Name, Address, Phone')],
            [sg.Text('Name', size=(15, 1)), sg.InputText('1', key='_name_')],
            [sg.Text('Address', size=(15, 1)), sg.InputText('2', key='_address_')],
            [sg.Text('Phone', size=(15, 1)), sg.InputText('3', key='_phone_')],
            [sg.Submit(), sg.Cancel()]
            ]

window = sg.Window('Simple data entry window', layout)
event, values = window.Read()

sg.Popup(event, values, values['_name_'], values['_address_'], values['_phone_'])

To get the value of an input field, you use whatever value used as the key value as the index value. Thus to get the value of the name field, it is written as

values['name']

Think of the variable values in the same way as you would a list, however, instead of using 0,1,2, to reference each item in the list, use the values of the key. The Name field in the window above is referenced by values['_name_'].

You will find the key field used quite heavily in most PySimpleGUI windows unless the window is very simple.

Another convention you'll see in some of the demo programs is keys being named with an underscore at the beginning and the end. You don't HAVE to do this... your key value may look like this: key = 'name'

The reason for this naming convention is that when you are scanning the code, these key values jump out at you. You instantly know it's a key. Try scanning the code above and see if those keys pop out. key = '_name_'

The Event Loop / Callback Functions

All GUIs have one thing in common, an "event loop". Usually the GUI framework runs the event loop for you, but sometimes you want greater control and will run your own event loop. You often hear the term event loop when discussing embedded systems or on a Raspberry Pi.

With PySimpleGUI if your window will remain open following button clicks, then your code will have an event loop. If your program shows a single "one-shot" window, collects the data and then has no other GUI interaction, then you don't need an event loop.

There's nothing mysterious about event loops... they are loops where you take care of.... wait for it..... events. Events are things like button clicks, key strokes, mouse scroll-wheel up/down.

Let's take a Pi demo program as an example. This program shows a GUI window, gets button presses, and uses them to control some LEDs. It loops, reading user input and doing something with it.

This little program has a typical Event Loop

readme example

import PySimpleGUI as sg

layout = [[sg.Text('Click read to read the input value')],
          [sg.Input()],
          [sg.RButton('Read'), sg.Exit()]]

window = sg.Window('Persistent GUI Window', layout)

while True:
    event, values = window.Read()
    if event is None or event == 'Exit':
        break
    print(event, values)
window.Close()

In the Event Loop we are reading the window and then doing a series of button compares to determine what to do based on the button that was clicks (value of button variable)

The way buttons are presented to the caller in PySimpleGUI is not how most GUI frameworks handle button clicks. Most GUI frameworks, including tkinter, use callback functions, a function you define would be called when a button is clicked. This requires you to write asynchronous code, a concept beginners often stumble on and one that presents a barrier.

There is a more communications that have to happen between parts of your program when using callbacks. Callbacks break apart your program's logic apart and scatter it. One of the larger hurdles for beginners to GUI programming are these callback functions.

PySimpleGUI was specifically designed in a way so that callbacks would not be required. There is no coordination between one function and another required. You simply read your button click and take appropriate action at the same location in the code as when you read the button value.

Whether or not this is a "proper" design for GUI programs can be debated. It's not a terrible trade-off to run your own event loop and having a functioning GUI application versus one that maybe never gets written because callback functions were too much to grasp.

All Widgets / Elements

This code utilizes many of the common Elements. It does not include Tabs/Tab Groups.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

sg.ChangeLookAndFeel('GreenTan')

# ------ Menu Definition ------ #
menu_def = [['File', ['Open', 'Save', 'Exit', 'Properties']],
            ['Edit', ['Paste', ['Special', 'Normal', ], 'Undo'], ],
            ['Help', 'About...'], ]

# ------ Column Definition ------ #
column1 = [[sg.Text('Column 1', background_color='#F7F3EC', justification='center', size=(10, 1))],
            [sg.Spin(values=('Spin Box 1', '2', '3'), initial_value='Spin Box 1')],
            [sg.Spin(values=('Spin Box 1', '2', '3'), initial_value='Spin Box 2')],
            [sg.Spin(values=('Spin Box 1', '2', '3'), initial_value='Spin Box 3')]]

layout = [
    [sg.Menu(menu_def, tearoff=True)],
    [sg.Text('All graphic widgets in one window!', size=(30, 1), justification='center', font=("Helvetica", 25), relief=sg.RELIEF_RIDGE)],
    [sg.Text('Here is some text.... and a place to enter text')],
    [sg.InputText('This is my text')],
    [sg.Frame(layout=[
    [sg.Checkbox('Checkbox', size=(10,1)),  sg.Checkbox('My second checkbox!', default=True)],
    [sg.Radio('My first Radio!     ', "RADIO1", default=True, size=(10,1)), sg.Radio('My second Radio!', "RADIO1")]], title='Options',title_color='red', relief=sg.RELIEF_SUNKEN, tooltip='Use these to set flags')],
    [sg.Multiline(default_text='This is the default Text should you decide not to type anything', size=(35, 3)),
        sg.Multiline(default_text='A second multi-line', size=(35, 3))],
    [sg.InputCombo(('Combobox 1', 'Combobox 2'), size=(20, 1)),
        sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='h', size=(34, 20), default_value=85)],
    [sg.InputOptionMenu(('Menu Option 1', 'Menu Option 2', 'Menu Option 3'))],
    [sg.Listbox(values=('Listbox 1', 'Listbox 2', 'Listbox 3'), size=(30, 3)),
        sg.Frame('Labelled Group',[[
        sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='v', size=(5, 20), default_value=25),
        sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='v', size=(5, 20), default_value=75),
        sg.Slider(range=(1, 100), orientation='v', size=(5, 20), default_value=10),
        sg.Column(column1, background_color='#F7F3EC')]])],
    [sg.Text('_'  * 80)],
    [sg.Text('Choose A Folder', size=(35, 1))],
    [sg.Text('Your Folder', size=(15, 1), auto_size_text=False, justification='right'),
        sg.InputText('Default Folder'), sg.FolderBrowse()],
    [sg.Submit(tooltip='Click to submit this window'), sg.Cancel()]
]


window = sg.Window('Everything bagel', layout, default_element_size=(40, 1), grab_anywhere=False)

event, values = window.Read()

sg.Popup('Title',
            'The results of the window.',
            'The button clicked was "{}"'.format(event),
            'The values are', values)

This is a somewhat complex window with quite a bit of custom sizing to make things line up well. This is code you only have to write once. When looking at the code, remember that what you're seeing is a list of lists. Each row contains a list of Graphical Elements that are used to create the window.

everything bagel

Clicking the Submit button caused the window call to return. The call to Popup resulted in this window.

everything bagel reseults

Note, button value can be None. The value for button will be the text that is displayed on the button element when it was created. If the user closed the window using something other than a button, then button will be None. It is vitally important that your code contain the proper checks for None. Always give your users a way out of the window. Otherwise you'll end up with windows that never properly close.

You can see in the results Popup window that the values returned are a list. Each input field in the window generates one item in the return values list. All input fields return a string except for Check Boxes and Radio Buttons. These return bool.

Building Custom Windows

You will find it much easier to write code using PySimpleGUI if you use an IDE such as PyCharm. The features that show you documentation about the API call you are making will help you determine which settings you want to change, if any. In PyCharm, two commands are particularly helpful.

Control-Q (when cursor is on function name) brings up a box with the function definition
Control-P (when cursor inside function call "()") shows a list of parameters and their default values

Synchronous windows

The most common use of PySimpleGUI is to display and collect information from the user. The most straightforward way to do this is using a "blocking" GUI call. Execution is "blocked" while waiting for the user to close the GUI window/dialog box. You've already seen a number of examples above that use blocking windows. A truly non-blocking Read call looks like this:

event, values = window.Read(timeout=0)

You can learn more about these async / non-blocking windows toward the end of this document.

Window Object - Beginning a window

The first step is to create the window object using the desired window customization.

This is the definition of the Window object:

Window( title,
    default_element_size=DEFAULT_ELEMENT_SIZE,
    default_button_element_size=(None,None),
    auto_size_text=None,
    auto_size_buttons=None,
    location=(None,None),
    size=(None,None),
    element_padding=None,
    button_color=None,
    font=None,
    progress_bar_color=(None,None),
    background_color=None,
    border_depth=None,
    auto_close=False,
    auto_close_duration=DEFAULT_AUTOCLOSE_TIME,
    icon=DEFAULT_WINDOW_ICON,
    force_toplevel=False,
    alpha_channel=1,
    return_keyboard_events=False,
    use_default_focus=True,
    text_justification=None,
    no_titlebar=False,
    grab_anywhere=False,
    keep_on_top=False,
    resizable=False,
    disable_close=False,
    disable_minimize=False,
    right_click_menu=None):

Parameter Descriptions. You will find these same parameters specified for each Element and some of them in Row specifications. The Element specified value will take precedence over the Row and window values.

Name Meaning
default_element_size Size of elements in window in characters (width, height)
default_button_element_size Size of buttons on this window
auto_size_text Bool. True if elements should size themselves according to contents. Defaults to True
auto_size_buttons Bool. True if button elements should size themselves according to their text label
location (x,y) Location to place window in pixels
size (w,h) forces a window to be a paricular size
element_padding (w,h) default padding amount for elements
font Font name and size for elements of the window
button_color Default color for buttons (foreground, background). Can be text or hex
progress_bar_color Foreground and background colors for progress bars
background_color Color of the window background
border_depth Amount of 'bezel' to put on input boxes, buttons, etc.
auto_close Bool. If True window will autoclose
auto_close_duration Duration in seconds before window closes
icon .ICO file that will appear on the Task Bar and end of Title Bar
force_top_level Bool. If set causes a tk.Tk window to be used as primary window rather than tk.TopLevel. Used to get around Matplotlib problem
alpha_channel Float 0 to 1. 0 is invisible, 1 is fully visible, Anything between will be semi-transparent
return_keyboard_events if True key presses are returned as buttons
use_default_focus if True and no focus set, then automatically set a focus
text_justification Justification to use for Text Elements in this window
no_titlebar Create window without a titlebar
grab_anywhere Grab any location on the window to move the window
keep_on_top if True then window will always stop on top of other windows on the screen. Great for floating toolbars.
resizable if True
disable_close if True user will not be able to close using the X.
disable_minimize if True user will not be able to minimize the window
right_click_menu menu definition that will be used on wall elements that support right click. If a definition is specified on an element then it will be used instead.

Window Location

PySimpleGUI computes the exact center of your window and centers the window on the screen. If you want to locate your window elsewhere, such as the system default of (0,0), if you have 2 ways of doing this. The first is when the window is created. Use the location parameter to set where the window. The second way of doing this is to use the SetOptions call which will set the default window location for all windows in the future.

Window Size

You can get your window's size by access the Sizeproperty. The window has to be Read once or Finalized in order for the value to be correct. Note that it's a property, not a call.

my_windows_size = window.Size

To finalize your window:

window = Window('My Title', layout).Finalize()

Element Sizes

Note several variables that deal with "size". Element sizes are measured in characters. A Text Element with a size of 20,1 has a size of 20 characters wide by 1 character tall.

The default Element size for PySimpleGUI is (45,1).

Sizes can be set at the element level, or in this case, the size variables apply to all elements in the window. Setting size=(20,1) in the window creation call will set all elements in the window to that size.

There are a couple of widgets where one of the size values is in pixels rather than characters. This is true for Progress Meters and Sliders. The second parameter is the 'height' in pixels.

No Titlebar

Should you wish to create cool looking windows that are clean with no windows titlebar, use the no_titlebar option when creating the window.

Be sure an provide your user an "exit" button or they will not be able to close the window! When no titlebar is enabled, there will be no icon on your taskbar for the window. Without an exit button you will need to kill via taskmanager... not fun.

Windows with no titlebar rely on the grab anywhere option to be enabled or else you will be unable to move the window.

Windows without a titlebar can be used to easily create a floating launcher.

Linux users! Note that this setting has side effects for some of the other Elements. Multi-line input doesn't work at all, for example So, use with caution.

floating launcher

Grab Anywhere

This is a feature unique to PySimpleGUI.

Note - there is a warning message printed out if the user closes a non-blocking window using a button with grab_anywhere enabled. There is no harm in these messages, but it may be distressing to the user. Should you wish to enable for a non-blocking window, simply get grab_anywhere = True when you create the window.

Always on top

To keep a window on top of all other windows on the screen, set keep_on_top = True when the window is created. This feature makes for floating toolbars that are very helpful and always visible on your desktop.

Focus

PySimpleGUI will set a default focus location for you. This generally means the first input field. You can set the focus to a particular element. If you are going to set the focus yourself, then you should turn off the automatic focus by setting use_default_focus=False in your Window call.

Window Methods (things you can do with a Window object)

There are a few methods (functions) that you will see in this document that act on Windows. The ones you will primarily be calling are:

window.Layout(layout) - Recommend moving away from this nethod and using layout parameter instead. Turns your definition of the Window into Window
window.Finalize() - creates the tkinter objects for the Window. Normally you do not call this
window.Read() - Read the Windows values and get the button / key that caused the Read to return. Can have an optional timeout
window.ReadNonBlocking() - NO LONGER USED!
window.Refresh() - Use if updating elements and want to show the updates prior to the nex Read
window.Fill(values_dict) - Fill each Element with entry from the dictionary passed in
window.SaveToDisk(filename) - Save the Window's values to disk
window.LoadFromDisk(filename) - Load the Window's values from disk
window.Close() - To close your window, if a button hasn't already closed it
window.Disable() - Use to disable the window inputwhen opening another window on top of the primnary  Window
window.Enable() - Re-enable a Disabled window
window.FindElement(key, silent_on_error=False) - Returns the element that has a matching key value
window.Element(key, silent_on_error=False) - EXACTLY the same as calling FindElement
window.Move(x,y) - Moves window to location x,y on screen'
window.SetAlpha(alpha) - Changes window transparency
window.BringToFront() - Brings the window to the top of other windows on the screen
window.Disappear(), Reappear() - Uses alpha channel to make window disappear
window.Hide(), UnHide() - Hides a window
window.CurrentLocation() - Returns current window location
window.Size = w,h - Forces a window to be a particular size. Note this is a property not a method
window.Size - Tuple (w,h)The size of the current window. Note this is a property
window.Minimize() - Minimizes window to taskbar

Window Methods

There are a number of operations you can do on a window after you've created the window. You call these after creating your Windows object.

Layout(rows)

Call to set the window layout. Must be called prior to Read. Most likely "chained" in line with the Window creation.

window = sg.Window('My window title', layout)

Finalize()

Call to force a window to go through the final stages of initialization. This will cause the tkinter resources to be allocated so that they can then be modified. This also causes your window to appear. If you do not want your window to appear when Finalize is called, then set the Alpha to 0 in your window's creation parameters.

If you want to call an element's Update method or call a Graph element's drawing primitives, you must either call Read or Finalize prior to making those calls.

Read(timeout=None, timeout_key='__TIMEOUT_ _ ')

Read the Window's input values and button clicks in a blocking-fashion

Returns event, values. Adding a timeout can be achieved by setting timeout=number of milliseconds before the Read times out after which a "timeout event" is returned. The value of timeout_key will be returned as the event. If you do not specify a timeout key, then the value TIMEOUT_KEY will be returned.

If you set the timeout = 0, then the Read will immediately return rather than waiting for input or for a timeout. This is the same as the old ReadNonBlocking call.

ReadNonBlocking() (NO LONGER USED)

While this call will technically still work, it is being removed. If you want to get the same result, call Read with timeout = 0.

Read the Window's input values and button clicks but without blocking. It will immediately return. Consider using Read with non-zero timeout instead!

Will consume 100% of your CPU if you do not have other blocking calls in your event loop.

name meaning
Refresh() Cause changes to the window to be displayed on the screen. Normally not needed unless the changes are immediately required or if it's going to be a while before another call to Read.
SetIcon(icon, pngbase64) Sets the window's icon that will be shown on the titlebar. Can either be a filename or a base64 string.
Fill(values_dict) Populates the windows fields with the values shown in the dictionary.
FindElementWithFocus() Returns the Element that currently has the focus. Returns None if no Elements were found.
SaveToDisk(filename) Saves the window's values to disk
LoadFromDisk(filename) Fills in a window's fields based on previously saved file
GetScreenDimensions() Returns the size (w,h) of the screen in pixels
CurrentLocation() Returns current screen position (x,y)
Move(x, y) Move window to (x,y) position on the screen
Minimize() Sends the window to the taskbar
Close() Closes a window, blocking or non-blocking
Disable() Stops a window from responding until Enable is called
Enable() Re-enables a previously disabled window
Hide() Completely hides a window, including removing from the taskbar
UnHide() Restores a window hidden using Hide
Disappear() Makes a window disappear while leaving the icon on the taskbar
Reappear() Makes a window reappear that was previously made to disappear using Disappear()
SetAlpha(alpha) Sets the window's transparency. 0 is completely transparent. 1 is fully visible, normal . Can also use the property Window.AlphaChannel instead of method function call
CloseNonBlocking()
(NO LONGER USED.
use Close instead)
Closes a non-blocking window
FindElement(key, silent_on_error=False) (shorthand version
Element)
Returns the Element that has a matching key. If the key is not found, an Error Element is returned so that the program will not crash should the user try to perform an "update". A Popup message will be shown

Elements

"Elements" are the building blocks used to create windows. Some GUI APIs use the term "Widget" to describe these graphic elements.

Common Element Parameters

Some parameters that you will see on almost all Elements are: - key - Used with window.FindElement and with return values - tooltip - Hover your mouse over the elemnt and you'll get a popup with this text - size - (width, height) - usually measured in characters-wide, rows-high. Sometimes they mean pixels - font - specifies the font family, size, etc - colors - Color name or #RRGGBB string - pad - Amount of padding to put around element - enable_events - Turns on the element specific events

Tooltip

Tooltips are text boxes that popup next to an element if you hold your mouse over the top of it. If you want to be extra kind to your window's user, then you can create tooltips for them by setting the parameter tooltip to some text string. You will need to supply your own line breaks / text wrapping. If you don't want to manually add them, then take a look at the standard library package textwrap.

Tooltips are one of those "polish" items that really dress-up a GUI and show's a level of sophistication. Go ahead, impress people, throw some tooltips into your GUI.

Size

Specifies the amount of room reserved for the Element. For elements that are character based, such a Text, it is (# characters, # rows). Sometimes it is a pixel measurement such as the Image element. And sometimes a mix like on the Slider element (characters long by pixels wide).

Colors

A string representing color. Anytime colors are involved, you can specify the tkinter color name such as 'lightblue' or an RGB hex value '#RRGGBB'. For buttons, the color parameter is a tuple (text color, background color)

Pad

The amount of room around the element in pixels. The default value is (5,3) which means leave 5 pixels on each side of the x-axis and 3 pixels on each side of the y-axis. You can change this on a global basis using a call to SetOptions, or on an element basis.

If you want more pixels on one side than the other, then you can split the number into 2 number. If you want 200 pixels on the left side, and 3 pixels on the right, the pad would be ((200,3), 3). In this example, only the x-axis is split.

Font

Specifies the font family, size, and style. Font families on Windows include: * Arial * Courier * Comic, * Fixedsys * Times * Verdana * Helvetica (the default I think)

The fonts will vary from system to system, however, Tk 8.0 automatically maps Courier, Helvetica and Times to their corresponding native family names on all platforms. Also, font families cannot cause a font specification to fail on Tk 8.0 and greater.

If you wish to leave the font family set to the default, you can put anything not a font name as the family. The PySimpleGUI Demo programs and documentation use the family 'Any' to demonstrate this fact.. You could use "default" if that's more clear to you.

There are 2 formats that can be used to specify a font... a string, and a tuple Tuple - (family, size, styles) String - "Family Size Styles"

To specify an underlined, Helvetica font with a size of 15 the values: ('Helvetica', 15, 'underline italics') 'Helvetica 15 underline italics'

Key

If you are going to do anything beyond the basic stuff with your GUI, then you need to understand keys. Keys are a way for you to "tag" an Element with a value that will be used to identify that element. After you put a key in an element's definition, the values returned from Read will use that key to tell you the value. For example, if you have an input field: Input(key='mykey')

And your read looks like this: event, values = Read()

Then to get the input value from the read it would be: values['mykey']

You also use the same key if you want to call Update on an element. Please see the section below on Updates to understand that usage.

Visible

Beginning in version 3.17 you can create Elements that are initially invisible that you can later make visible.

To create an invisible Element, place the element in the layout like you normally would and add the parameter visible=False.

Later when you want to make that Element visible you simply call the Element's Update method and pass in the parameter visible=True

This feature works best on Qt, but does work on the tkinter version as well. The visible parameter can also be used with the Column and Frame "container" Elements.

Output Elements

Building a window is simply making lists of Elements. Each list is a row in the overall GUI dialog box. The definition looks something like this:

layout = [ [row 1 element, row 1 element],
            [row 2 element, row 2 element, row 2 element] ]

The code is a crude representation of the GUI, laid out in text.

Shortcut Functions / Multiple Function Names

Many of the main method calls and Element names have shortcuts. This enables you to code much quicker once you are used to using the SDK. The Text Element, for example, has 3 different names Text, Txt orT. InputText can also be written Input or In . FindElement was recently renamed to Element because it's a commonly used function.

Text Element | T == Txt == Text

Basic Element. It displays text. That's it.

layout = [
  [sg.Text('This is what a Text Element looks like')],
  [sg.T('Second label')],
 ]

simple text

Text(text,
    size=(None, None),
    auto_size_text=None,
    click_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    relief=None,
    font=None,
    text_color=None,
    background_color=None,
    justification=None,
    pad=None,
    key=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    tooltip=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
text
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
auto_size_text True if size should fit the text length (Default value = None)
click_submits (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
relief (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
justification justification for data display (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Methods

Update(value=None,
    background_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    font=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

Fonts

Already discussed in the common parameters section. Either string or a tuple.

Color in PySimpleGUI are in one of two formats - color name or RGB value.

Individual colors are specified using either the color names as defined in tkinter or an RGB string of this format:

"#RRGGBB"        or          "darkblue"

auto_size_text

A True value for auto_size_text, when placed on Text Elements, indicates that the width of the Element should be shrunk do the width of the text. The default setting is True.

Chortcut functions

The shorthand functions for Text are Txt and T

Events enable_events

If you set the parameter enable_events or click_submits then you will get an event if the user clicks on the Text.

Multiline Element

This Element doubles as both an input and output Element.

layout = [[sg.Multiline('This is what a Multi-line Text Element looks like', size=(45,5))]]

multiline

Multiline(default_text="",
    enter_submits=False,
    disabled=False,
    autoscroll=False,
    border_width=None,
    size=(None, None),
    auto_size_text=None,
    background_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    do_not_clear=True,
    key=None,
    focus=False,
    font=None,
    pad=None,
    tooltip=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
default_text (Default value = '')
enter_submits (Default value = False)
disabled set disable state for element (Default value = False)
autoscroll (Default value = False)
border_width (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
auto_size_text True if size should fit the text length (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
do_not_clear see docx (Default value = True)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
focus if focus should be set to this (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Methods

Update(value=None,
    disabled=None,
    append=False,
    font=None,
    text_color=None,
    background_color=None,
    visible=None,
    autoscroll=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
disabled disable or enable state of the element (Default value = None)
append (Default value = False)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)
autoscroll (Default value = None)

Text Input Element | Input == In

Shows a single line of input.

layout = [[sg.InputText('Default text')]]

inputtext 2

InputText(default_text="",
    size=(None, None),
    disabled=False,
    password_char="",
    justification=None,
    background_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    font=None,
    tooltip=None,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    do_not_clear=True,
    key=None,
    focus=False,
    pad=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
default_text (Default value = '')
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
disabled set disable state for element (Default value = False)
password_char Passwork character if this is a password field (Default value = '')
justification justification for data display (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window- DEPRICATED DO NOT USE! (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events. Use this instead of change_submits (Default value = False)
do_not_clear see docx (Default value = True)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
focus if focus should be set to this (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

There are two methods that can be called:

Input.Update(new_Value) - sets the input to new_value
Input.Get() - returns the current value of the field.

Shorthand functions that are equivalent to InputText are Input and In

do_not_clear Parameter

Important - This trips a lot of people up. If you do not set the do_not_clear parameter then the input field will clear when an event takes place. The behavior is a "forms" style window development. The assumption is that you want the field to clear. If you are writing a chat program then you're thankful. The rest of you, I'm sorry.

Methods

Update(value=None,
    disabled=None,
    select=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
disabled disable or enable state of the element (Default value = None)
select (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)


Get()

Combo Element | Combo == DropDown == Drop

Also known as a drop-down list. Only required parameter is the list of choices. The return value is a string matching what's visible on the GUI.

ComboBox Element

layout = [[sg.InputCombo(['choice 1', 'choice 2'])]]

combobox

Combo(values,
    default_value=None,
    size=(None, None),
    auto_size_text=None,
    background_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    disabled=False,
    key=None,
    pad=None,
    tooltip=None,
    readonly=False,
    font=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
values
default_value (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
auto_size_text True if size should fit the text length (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
disabled set disable state for element (Default value = False)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
readonly make element readonly (Default value = False)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Methods

Update(value=None,
    values=None,
    set_to_index=None,
    disabled=None,
    readonly=None,
    font=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
values (Default value = None)
set_to_index (Default value = None)
disabled disable or enable state of the element (Default value = None)
readonly make element readonly (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

ListBoxes can cause a window to return from a Read call. If the flag change_submits is set, then when a user makes a selection, the Read immediately returns. Another way ListBoxes can cause Reads to return is if the flag bind_return_key is set. If True, then if the user presses the return key while an entry is selected, then the Read returns. Also, if this flag is set, if the user double-clicks an entry it will return from the Read.

Slider Element

Sliders have a couple of slider-specific settings as well as appearance settings. Examples include the orientation and range settings.

layout = [[sg.Slider(range=(1,500), default_value=222, size=(20,15), orientation='horizontal', font=('Helvetica', 12))]]

slider

Slider(range=(None, None),
    default_value=None,
    resolution=None,
    tick_interval=None,
    orientation=None,
    disable_number_display=False,
    border_width=None,
    relief=None,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    disabled=False,
    size=(None, None),
    font=None,
    background_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    key=None,
    pad=None,
    tooltip=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
range (Default value = (None, None))
default_value (Default value = None)
resolution (Default value = None)
tick_interval (Default value = None)
orientation (Default value = None)
disable_number_display (Default value = False)
border_width (Default value = None)
relief (Default value = None)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
disabled set disable state for element (Default value = False)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Qt Sliders

There is an important difference between Qt and tkinter sliders. On Qt, the slider values must be integer, not float. If you want your slider to go from 0.1 to 1.0, then make your slider go from 1 to 10 and divide by 10. It's an easy math thing to do and not a big deal. Just deal with it.... you're writing software after all. Presumably you know how to do these things. ;-)

Slider Methods

Update(value=None,
    range=(None, None),
    disabled=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
range (Default value = (None, None))
disabled disable or enable state of the element (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

Methods

Update(value=None,
    disabled=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
disabled disable or enable state of the element (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

Methods

Update(value=None, disabled=None, visible=None)
Get()
name meaning
Update changes the element
value Bool if True checks the checkbox
disabled if True disables the element
Get returns current state

Spin Element

An up/down spinner control. The valid values are passed in as a list.

layout =  [[sg.Spin([i for i in range(1,11)], initial_value=1), sg.Text('Volume level')]]

spinner

Spin(values,
    initial_value=None,
    disabled=False,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    size=(None, None),
    auto_size_text=None,
    font=None,
    background_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    key=None,
    pad=None,
    tooltip=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
values
initial_value (Default value = None)
disabled set disable state for element (Default value = False)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
auto_size_text True if size should fit the text length (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Qt Differences - values is a range!

Note that Qt does not allow arbitrary spinner values. With PySimpleGUI-tkinter you can have any values in your list. In Qt they must be integers. Yea, it kinda sucks. I'm working on it.

On Qt values is a tuple representing a range. On plain PySimpleGUI this value is a list of items. Make sure on the plain version you specify items as a list using [] and not a generator using ().

Methods

Update(value=None,
    values=None,
    disabled=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
values (Default value = None)
disabled disable or enable state of the element (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

Methods

Update(filename=None,
    data=None,
    size=(None, None),
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
filename (Default value = None)
data (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

Choose either a filename or in-ram data image to use to replace current image

UpdateAnimation Method for Animated GIFs

You can specify an animated GIF as an image and can animate the GIF by calling UpdateAnimation. Exciting stuff!

loading animation

UpdateAnimation(source,
    time_between_frames=0)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
source
time_between_frames (Default value = 0)

You can call the method without setting the time_between_frames value and it will show a frame and immediately move on to the next frame. This enables you to do the inter-frame timing.

Button Element

MAC USERS - Macs suck when it comes to tkinter and button colors. It sucks so badly with colors that the LookAndFeel call is disabled. You cannot change button colors for Macs. You're stuck with the system default color if you are using the tkinter version of PySimpleGUI. The Qt version does not have this issue.

Buttons are the most important element of all! They cause the majority of the action to happen. After all, it's a button press that will get you out of a window, whether it be Submit or Cancel, one way or another a button is involved in all windows. The only exception is to this is when the user closes the window using the "X" in the upper corner which means no button was involved.

The Types of buttons include: * Folder Browse * File Browse * Files Browse * File SaveAs * File Save * Close window (normal button) * Read window * Realtime * Calendar Chooser * Color Chooser

Close window - Normal buttons like Submit, Cancel, Yes, No, do NOT close the window... they used to. Now to close a window you need to use a CloseButton / CButton.

Folder Browse - When clicked a folder browse dialog box is opened. The results of the Folder Browse dialog box are written into one of the input fields of the window.

File Browse - Same as the Folder Browse except rather than choosing a folder, a single file is chosen.

Calendar Chooser - Opens a graphical calendar to select a date.

Color Chooser - Opens a color chooser dialog

Read window - This is a window button that will read a snapshot of all of the input fields, but does not close the window after it's clicked.

Realtime - This is another async window button. Normal button clicks occur after a button's click is released. Realtime buttons report a click the entire time the button is held down.

Most programs will use a combination of shortcut button calls (Submit, Cancel, etc), normal Buttons which leave the windows open and CloseButtons that close the window when clicked.

Sometimes there are multiple names for the same function. This is simply to make the job of the programmer quicker and easier. Or they are old names that are no longer used but kept around so that existing programs don't break.

The 4 primary windows of PySimpleGUI buttons and their names are:

  1. Button= ReadButton = RButton = ReadFormButton (old style... use Button instead)
  2. CloseButton = CButton
  3. RealtimeButton
  4. DummyButton

You will find the long-form names in the older programs. ReadButton for example.

In Oct 2018, the definition of Button changed. Previously Button would CLOSE the window when clicked. It has been changed so the Button calls will leave the window open in exactly the same way as a ReadButton. They are the same calls now. To enables windows to be closed using buttons, a new button was added... CloseButton or CButton.

The most basic Button element call to use is Button

layout =  [[sg.OK(), sg.Cancel()]]

ok cancel 3

Button(button_text="",
    button_type=7,
    target=(None, None),
    tooltip=None,
    file_types=(('ALL Files', '*.*'),),
    initial_folder=None,
    disabled=False,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    image_filename=None,
    image_data=None,
    image_size=(None, None),
    image_subsample=None,
    border_width=None,
    size=(None, None),
    auto_size_button=None,
    button_color=None,
    font=None,
    bind_return_key=False,
    focus=False,
    pad=None,
    key=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
button_text (Default value = '')
button_type (Default value = BUTTON_TYPE_READ_FORM)
target
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
file_types (Default value = (("ALL Files", "."),))
initial_folder (Default value = None)
disabled set disable state for element (Default value = False)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
image_filename (Default value = None)
image_data (Default value = None)
image_size (Default value = (None)
image_subsample (Default value = None)
border_width (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None)
auto_size_button (Default value = None)
button_color (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
bind_return_key (Default value = False)
focus if focus should be set to this (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Shortcut, Pre-defined Buttons

These Pre-made buttons are some of the most important elements of all because they are used so much. They all basically do the same thing, set the button text to match the function name and set the parameters to commonly used values. If you find yourself needing to create a custom button often because it's not on this list, please post a request on GitHub. . They include:

OK
Ok
Submit
Cancel
Yes
No
Exit
Quit
Help
Save
SaveAs
FileBrowse
FilesBrowse
FileSaveAs
FolderBrowse

IMPORT NOTE ABOUT SHORTCUT BUTTONS Prior to release 3.11.0, these buttons closed the window. Starting with 3.11 they will not close the window. They act like RButtons (return the button text and do not close the window)

If you are having trouble with these buttons closing your window, please check your installed version of PySimpleGUI by typing pip list at a command prompt. Prior to 3.11 these buttons close your window.

Using older versions, if you want a Submit() button that does not close the window, then you would instead use RButton('Submit'). Using the new version, if you want a Submit button that closes the window like the sold Submit() call did, you would write that as CloseButton('Submit') or CButton('Submit')

Button targets

The FileBrowse, FolderBrowse, FileSaveAs , FilesSaveAs, CalendarButton, ColorChooserButton buttons all fill-in values into another element located on the window. The target can be a Text Element or an InputText Element. The location of the element is specified by the target variable in the function call.

The Target comes in two forms. 1. Key 2. (row, column)

Targets that are specified using a key will find its target element by using the target's key value. This is the "preferred" method.

If the Target is specified using (row, column) then it utilizes a grid system. The rows in your GUI are numbered starting with 0. The target can be specified as a hard coded grid item or it can be relative to the button.

The (row, col) targeting can only target elements that are in the same "container". Containers are the Window, Column and Frame Elements. A File Browse button located inside of a Column is unable to target elements outside of that Column.

The default value for target is (ThisRow, -1). ThisRow is a special value that tells the GUI to use the same row as the button. The Y-value of -1 means the field one value to the left of the button. For a File or Folder Browse button, the field that it fills are generally to the left of the button is most cases. (ThisRow, -1) means the Element to the left of the button, on the same row.

If a value of (None, None) is chosen for the target, then the button itself will hold the information. Later the button can be queried for the value by using the button's key.

Let's examine this window as an example:

file browse

The InputText element is located at (1,0)... row 1, column 0. The Browse button is located at position (2,0). The Target for the button could be any of these values:

Target = (1,0)
Target = (-1,0)

The code for the entire window could be:

layout = [[sg.T('Source Folder')],
              [sg.In()],
              [sg.FolderBrowse(target=(-1, 0)), sg.OK()]]

or if using keys, then the code would be:

layout = [[sg.T('Source Folder')],
              [sg.In(key='input')],
              [sg.FolderBrowse(target='input'), sg.OK()]]

See how much easier the key method is?

Save & Open Buttons

There are 4 different types of File/Folder open dialog box available. If you are looking for a file to open, the FileBrowse is what you want. If you want to save a file, SaveAs is the button. If you want to get a folder name, then FolderBrowse is the button to use. To open several files at once, use the FilesBrowse button. It will create a list of files that are separated by ';'

open

folder

saveas

Calendar Buttons

These buttons pop up a calendar chooser window. The chosen date is returned as a string.

calendar

Color Chooser Buttons

These buttons pop up a standard color chooser window. The result is returned as a tuple. One of the returned values is an RGB hex representation.

color

Custom Buttons Not all buttons are created equal. A button that closes a window is different that a button that returns from the window without closing it. If you want to define your own button, you will generally do this with the Button Element Button, which closes the window when clicked.

layout = [[sg.Button('My Button')]]

button

All buttons can have their text changed by changing the button_text variable in the button call. It is this text that is returned when a window is read. This text will be what tells you which button is called so make it unique. Most of the convenience buttons (Submit, Cancel, Yes, etc) are all Buttons. Some that are not are FileBrowse , FolderBrowse, FileSaveAs. They clearly do not close the window. Instead they bring up a file or folder browser dialog box.

Button Images Now this is an exciting feature not found in many simplified packages.... images on buttons! You can make a pretty spiffy user interface with the help of a few button images.

Your button images need to be in PNG or GIF format. When you make a button with an image, set the button background to the same color as the background. There's a button color TRANSPARENT_BUTTON that you can set your button color to in order for it to blend into the background. Note that this value is currently the same as the color as the default system background on Windows. If you want to set the button background color to the current system default, use the value COLOR_SYSTEM_DEFAULT as the background color.

This example comes from the Demo Media Player.py example program. Because it's a non-blocking button, it's defined as RButton. You also put images on blocking buttons by using Button.

sg.RButton('Restart Song', button_color=sg.TRANSPARENT_BUTTON,
                   image_filename=image_restart, image_size=(50, 50), image_subsample=2, border_width=0)

Three parameters are used for button images.

image_filename - Filename. Can be a relative path
image_size - Size of image file in pixels
image_subsample - Amount to divide the size by.  2 means your image will be 1/2 the size.  3 means 1/3

Here's an example window made with button images.

media file player

You'll find the source code in the file Demo Media Player. Here is what the button calls look like to create media player window ```python sg.RButton('Pause', button_color=sg.TRANSPARENT_BUTTON, image_filename=image_pause, image_size=(50, 50), image_subsample=2, border_width=0)

This is one you'll have to experiment with at this point.  Not up for an exhaustive explanation.

  **Realtime Buttons**

  Normally buttons are considered "clicked" when the mouse button is let UP after a downward click on the button.  What about times when you need to read the raw up/down button values.  A classic example for this is a robotic remote control.  Building a remote control using a GUI is easy enough.  One button for each of the directions is a start.  Perhaps something like this:

![robot remote](https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/13696193/44959958-ff9b7000-aec4-11e8-99ea-7450926409be.jpg)


This window has 2 button types.  There's the normal "Read Button" (Quit) and 4 "Realtime Buttons".

Here is the code to make, show and get results from this window:

```python
import PySimpleGUI as sg

gui_rows = [[sg.Text('Robotics Remote Control')],
            [sg.T(' '  * 10), sg.RealtimeButton('Forward')],
            [sg.RealtimeButton('Left'), sg.T(' '  * 15), sg.RealtimeButton('Right')],
            [sg.T(' '  * 10), sg.RealtimeButton('Reverse')],
            [sg.T('')],
            [sg.Quit(button_color=('black', 'orange'))]
            ]

window = sg.Window('Robotics Remote Control', auto_size_text=True).Layout(gui_rows)

#
# Some place later in your code...
# You need to perform a Read or Refresh call on your window every now and then or
# else it will apprear as if the program has locked up.
#
# your program's main loop
while (True):
    # This is the code that reads and updates your window
    event, values = window.Read(timeout=0)
    if event is not None:
        print(event)
    if event == 'Quit'  or values is None:
        break

window.Close()  # Don't forget to close your window!

This loop will read button values and print them. When one of the Realtime buttons is clicked, the call to window.Read will return a button name matching the name on the button that was depressed or the key if there was a key assigned to the button. It will continue to return values as long as the button remains depressed. Once released, the Read will return timeout events until a button is again clicked.

File Types The FileBrowse & SaveAs buttons have an additional setting named file_types. This variable is used to filter the files shown in the file dialog box. The default value for this setting is

FileTypes=(("ALL Files", "*.*"),)

This code produces a window where the Browse button only shows files of type .TXT

layout =  [[sg.In() ,sg.FileBrowse(file_types=(("Text Files", "*.txt"),))]]

NOTE - Mac users will not be able to use the file_types parameter. tkinter has a bug on Macs that will crash the program is a file_type is attempted so that feature had to be removed. Sorry about that!

The ENTER key The ENTER key is an important part of data entry for windows. There's a long tradition of the enter key being used to quickly submit windows. PySimpleGUI implements this by tying the ENTER key to the first button that closes or reads a window.

The Enter Key can be "bound" to a particular button so that when the key is pressed, it causes the window to return as if the button was clicked. This is done using the bind_return_key parameter in the button calls. If there are more than 1 button on a window, the FIRST button that is of type Close window or Read window is used. First is determined by scanning the window, top to bottom and left to right.

Methods

Update(text=None,
    button_color=(None, None),
    disabled=None,
    image_data=None,
    image_filename=None,
    visible=None,
    image_subsample=None,
    image_size=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
text (Default value = None)
button_color (Default value = (None)
disabled disable or enable state of the element (Default value = None)
image_data (Default value = None)
image_filename (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)
image_subsample (Default value = None)
image_size (Default value = None)

One use of this element is to make a "fake menu bar" that has a colored background. Normal menu bars cannot have their background color changed. Not so with ButtonMenus.

This is the effect:

buttonmenu

Return values for ButtonMenus are sent via the return values dictionary. If a selection is made, then an event is generated that will equal the ButtonMenu's key value. Use that key value to look up the value selected by the user. This is the same mechanism as the Menu Bar Element, but differs from the pop-up (right click) menu.

VerticalSeparator Element

This element has limited usefulness and is being included more for completeness than anything else. It will draw a line between elements.

It works best when placed between columns or elements that span multiple rows. If on a "normal" row with elements that are only 1 row high, then it will only span that one row.

VerticalSeparator(pad=None)

snag-0129

VerticalSeparator(pad=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)

ProgressBar Element

The ProgressBar element is used to build custom Progress Bar windows. It is HIGHLY recommended that you use OneLineProgressMeter that provides a complete progress meter solution for you. Progress Meters are not easy to work with because the windows have to be non-blocking and they are tricky to debug.

The easiest way to get progress meters into your code is to use the OneLineProgressMeter API. This consists of a pair of functions, OneLineProgressMeter and OneLineProgressMeterCancel. You can easily cancel any progress meter by calling it with the current value = max value. This will mark the meter as expired and close the window. You've already seen OneLineProgressMeter calls presented earlier in this readme.

sg.OneLineProgressMeter('My Meter', i+1, 1000,  'key', 'Optional message')

The return value for OneLineProgressMeter is: True if meter updated correctly False if user clicked the Cancel button, closed the window, or vale reached the max value.

Progress Mater in Your window

Another way of using a Progress Meter with PySimpleGUI is to build a custom window with a ProgressBar Element in the window. You will need to run your window as a non-blocking window. When you are ready to update your progress bar, you call the UpdateBar method for the ProgressBar element itself.

import PySimpleGUI as sg

# layout the window
layout = [[sg.Text('A custom progress meter')],
          [sg.ProgressBar(10000, orientation='h', size=(20, 20), key='progressbar')],
          [sg.Cancel()]]

# create the window`
window = sg.Window('Custom Progress Meter').Layout(layout)
progress_bar = window.FindElement('progressbar')
# loop that would normally do something useful
for i in range(10000):
    # check to see if the cancel button was clicked and exit loop if clicked
  event, values = window.Read(timeout=0)
    if event == 'Cancel'  or event is None:
        break
  # update bar with loop value +1 so that bar eventually reaches the maximum
  progress_bar.UpdateBar(i + 1)
# done with loop... need to destroy the window as it's still open
window.Close())

progress custom

ProgressBar(max_value,
    orientation=None,
    size=(None, None),
    auto_size_text=None,
    bar_color=(None, None),
    style=None,
    border_width=None,
    relief=None,
    key=None,
    pad=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
max_value
orientation (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
auto_size_text True if size should fit the text length (Default value = None)
bar_color (Default value = (None)
style (Default value = None)
border_width (Default value = None)
relief (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Output Elements

The Output Element is a re-direction of Stdout. Anything "printed" will be displayed in this element.

Note that you will NOT see what you print until you call either window.Read or window.Refresh. If you want to immediately see what was printed, call window.Refresh() immediately after your print statement.

Output(size=(None, None))

output

Output(size=(None, None),
    background_color=None,
    text_color=None,
    pad=None,
    font=None,
    tooltip=None,
    key=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Methods

Update(value=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
value (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

UpdateBar - ?

Column Element

Starting in version 2.9 you'll be able to do more complex layouts by using the Column Element. Think of a Column as a window within a window. And, yes, you can have a Column within a Column if you want.

Columns are specified in exactly the same way as a window is, as a list of lists.

Columns are needed when you have an element that has a height > 1 line on the left, with single-line elements on the right. Here's an example of this kind of layout:

column

The Column Element has 1 required parameter and 1 optional (the layout and the background color). Setting the background color has the same effect as setting the window's background color, except it only affects the column rectangle.

Column(layout,
    background_color=None,
    size=(None, None),
    pad=None,
    scrollable=False,
    vertical_scroll_only=False,
    right_click_menu=None,
    key=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
layout
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
scrollable (Default value = False)
vertical_scroll_only (Default value = False)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)


import PySimpleGUI as sg

# Demo of how columns work
# window has on row 1 a vertical slider followed by a COLUMN with 7 rows
# Prior to the Column element, this layout was not possible
# Columns layouts look identical to window layouts, they are a list of lists of elements.

window = sg.Window('Columns')                                   # blank window

# Column layout
col = [[sg.Text('col Row 1')],
       [sg.Text('col Row 2'), sg.Input('col input 1')],
       [sg.Text('col Row 3'), sg.Input('col input 2')],
       [sg.Text('col Row 4'), sg.Input('col input 3')],
       [sg.Text('col Row 5'), sg.Input('col input 4')],
       [sg.Text('col Row 6'), sg.Input('col input 5')],
       [sg.Text('col Row 7'), sg.Input('col input 6')]]

layout = [[sg.Slider(range=(1,100), default_value=10, orientation='v', size=(8,20)), sg.Column(col)],
          [sg.In('Last input')],
          [sg.OK()]]

# Display the window and get values
# If you're willing to not use the "context manager" design pattern, then it's possible
# to collapse the window display and read down to a single line of code.
event, values = sg.Window('Compact 1-line window with column').Layout(layout).Read()

sg.Popup(event, values, line_width=200)

Frame Element (Labelled Frames, Frames with a title)

Frames work exactly the same way as Columns. You create layout that is then used to initialize the Frame.

frame element

Notice how the Frame layout looks identical to a window layout. A window works exactly the same way as a Column and a Frame. They all are "container elements" - elements that contain other elements.

These container Elements can be nested as deep as you want. That's a pretty spiffy feature, right? Took a lot of work so be appreciative. Recursive code isn't trivial.

Frame(title,
    layout,
    title_color=None,
    background_color=None,
    title_location=None,
    relief="groove",
    size=(None, None),
    font=None,
    pad=None,
    border_width=None,
    key=None,
    tooltip=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
title
layout
title_color (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
title_location (Default value = None)
relief (Default value = DEFAULT_FRAME_RELIEF)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
border_width (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

This code creates a window with a Frame and 2 buttons.

frame_layout = [
                  [sg.T('Text inside of a frame')],
                  [sg.CB('Check 1'), sg.CB('Check 2')],
               ]
layout = [
          [sg.Frame('My Frame Title', frame_layout, font='Any 12', title_color='blue')],
          [sg.Submit(), sg.Cancel()]
         ]

window = sg.Window('Frame with buttons', font=("Helvetica", 12)).Layout(layout)

Canvas Element

In my opinion, the tkinter Canvas Widget is the most powerful of the tkinter widget. While I try my best to completely isolate the user from anything that is tkinter related, the Canvas Element is the one exception. It enables integration with a number of other packages, often with spectacular results.

Canvas(canvas=None,
    background_color=None,
    size=(None, None),
    pad=None,
    key=None,
    tooltip=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
canvas (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Matplotlib, Pyplot Integration

One such integration is with Matploplib and Pyplot. There is a Demo program written that you can use as a design pattern to get an understanding of how to use the Canvas Widget once you get it.

def Canvas(canvas - a tkinter canvasf if you created one. Normally not set
         background_color - canvas color
         size - size in pixels
         pad - element padding for packing
         key - key used to lookup element
         tooltip - tooltip text

The order of operations to obtain a tkinter Canvas Widget is:

figure_x, figure_y, figure_w, figure_h = fig.bbox.bounds
# define the window layout
layout = [[sg.Text('Plot test')],
          [sg.Canvas(size=(figure_w, figure_h), key='canvas')],
          [sg.OK(pad=((figure_w / 2, 0), 3), size=(4, 2))]]

# create the window and show it without the plot
window = sg.Window('Demo Application - Embedding Matplotlib In PySimpleGUI').Layout(layout).Finalize()


# add the plot to the window
fig_photo = draw_figure(window.FindElement('canvas').TKCanvas, fig)

# show it all again and get buttons
event, values = window.Read()

To get a tkinter Canvas Widget from PySimpleGUI, follow these steps: * Add Canvas Element to your window * Layout your window * Call window.Finalize() - this is a critical step you must not forget * Find the Canvas Element by looking up using key * Your Canvas Widget Object will be the found_element.TKCanvas * Draw on your canvas to your heart's content * Call window.Read() - Nothing will appear on your canvas until you call Read

See Demo_Matplotlib.py for a Recipe you can copy.

Methods

TKCanvas - not a method but a property. Returns the tkinter Canvas Widget

Graph Element

All you math fans will enjoy this Element... and all you non-math fans will enjoy it too.

I've found nothing to be less fun than dealing with a graphic's coordinate system from a GUI Framework. It's always upside down from what I want. (0,0) is in the upper left hand corner. In short, it's a pain in the ass.

Graph Element to the rescue. A Graph Element creates a pixel addressable canvas using YOUR coordinate system. You get to define the units on the X and Y axis.

There are 3 values you'll need to supply the Graph Element. They are: * Size of the canvas in pixels * The lower left (x,y) coordinate of your coordinate system * The upper right (x,y) coordinate of your coordinate system

After you supply those values you can scribble all of over your graph by creating Graph Figures. Graph Figures are created, and a Figure ID is obtained by calling: * DrawCircle * DrawLine * DrawPoint * DrawRectangle * DrawOval * DrawImage

You can move your figures around on the canvas by supplying the Figure ID the x,y amount to move.

graph.MoveFigure(my_circle, 10, 10)

This Element is relatively new and may have some parameter additions or deletions. It shouldn't break your code however.

Graph(canvas_size,
    graph_bottom_left,
    graph_top_right,
    background_color=None,
    pad=None,
    change_submits=False,
    drag_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    key=None,
    tooltip=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
canvas_size
graph_bottom_left
graph_top_right
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
drag_submits (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Methods

DrawLine - draws a point, line, circle, oval, arc, rectangle, text
DrawImage - places an image onto the graph
Erase - erases entire graph
Update - changes background color
Move - moves everything an x,y direction
MoveFigure - moves an individual figure by some delta
RelocateFigure - moves figure to an absolute location
DeleteFigure - delete an individual figure


All of the Drawing methods return a "figure" that can be used move and delete the figure

DrawLine(point_from,
    point_to,
    color="black",
    width=1)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
point_from
point_to
color (Default value = 'black')
width (Default value = 1)
DrawPoint(point,
    size=2,
    color="black")

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
point
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = 2)
color (Default value = 'black')
DrawCircle(center_location,
    radius,
    fill_color=None,
    line_color="black")

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
center_location
radius
fill_color (Default value = None)
line_color (Default value = 'black')
DrawOval(top_left,
    bottom_right,
    fill_color=None,
    line_color=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
top_left
bottom_right
fill_color (Default value = None)
line_color (Default value = None)
DrawArc(top_left,
    bottom_right,
    extent,
    start_angle,
    style=None,
    arc_color="black")

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
top_left
bottom_right
extent
start_angle
style (Default value = None)
arc_color (Default value = 'black')
DrawRectangle(top_left,
    bottom_right,
    fill_color=None,
    line_color=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
top_left
bottom_right
fill_color (Default value = None)
line_color (Default value = None)
DrawText(text,
    location,
    color="black",
    font=None,
    angle=0)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
text
location
color (Default value = 'black')
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
angle (Default value = 0)


Erase()

DeleteFigure(id)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
id
Update(background_color,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
background_color color of background
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)
Move(x_direction,
    y_direction)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
x_direction
y_direction
MoveFigure(figure,
    x_direction,
    y_direction)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
figure
x_direction
y_direction
RelocateFigure(figure,
    x,
    y)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
figure
x
y

Table Element

Out of all of the Elements, it's the Table and the Tree that are the most "problematic" in the tkinter inter and Qt implementations. They're hard is my only defense.

Table(values,
    headings=None,
    visible_column_map=None,
    col_widths=None,
    def_col_width=10,
    auto_size_columns=True,
    max_col_width=20,
    select_mode=None,
    display_row_numbers=False,
    num_rows=None,
    row_height=None,
    font=None,
    justification="right",
    text_color=None,
    background_color=None,
    alternating_row_color=None,
    row_colors=None,
    vertical_scroll_only=True,
    hide_vertical_scroll=False,
    size=(None, None),
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    bind_return_key=False,
    pad=None,
    key=None,
    tooltip=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
values
headings (Default value = None)
visible_column_map (Default value = None)
col_widths (Default value = None)
def_col_width (Default value = 10)
auto_size_columns (Default value = True)
max_col_width (Default value = 20)
select_mode (Default value = None)
display_row_numbers (Default value = False)
num_rows (Default value = None)
row_height (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
justification (Default value = 'right')
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
alternating_row_color (Default value = None)
row_colors (Default value = None)
vertical_scroll_only (Default value = True)
hide_vertical_scroll (Default value = False)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
bind_return_key (Default value = False)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Read return values from Table Element

The values returned from a Window.Read call for the Tree Element are a list of row numbers that are currently highlighted.

Methods

The Update method can be used to make changes to a table that's already been displayed. The call takes a single parameter, values, which is the new table to display. The entire table is replaced.

Update(values=None,
    num_rows=None,
    visible=None,
    select_rows=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
values (Default value = None)
num_rows (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)
select_rows (Default value = None)

Known visualization problem....

If you click on the header, it can go into spasms for some tables. I don't understand what's causing it and it's been there evidently since the first release of Tables.

Tree Element

The Tree Element and Table Element are close cousins. Many of the parameters found in the Table Element apply to Tree Elements. In particular the heading information, column widths, etc.

Tree(data=None,
    headings=None,
    visible_column_map=None,
    col_widths=None,
    col0_width=10,
    def_col_width=10,
    auto_size_columns=True,
    max_col_width=20,
    select_mode=None,
    show_expanded=False,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    font=None,
    justification="right",
    text_color=None,
    background_color=None,
    num_rows=None,
    row_height=None,
    pad=None,
    key=None,
    tooltip=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
data (Default value = None)
headings (Default value = None)
visible_column_map (Default value = None)
col_widths (Default value = None)
col0_width (Default value = 10)
def_col_width (Default value = 10)
auto_size_columns (Default value = True)
max_col_width (Default value = 20)
select_mode (Default value = None)
show_expanded (Default value = False)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
justification (Default value = 'right')
text_color color of the text (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
num_rows (Default value = None)
row_height (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Unlike Tables there is no standard format for trees. Thus the data structure passed to the Tree Element must be constructed. This is done using the TreeData class. The process is as follows: * Get a TreeData Object * "Insert" data into the tree * Pass the filled in TreeData object to Tree Element

TreeData format

def TreeData()
def Insert(self, parent, key, text, values, icon=None)

To "insert" data into the tree the TreeData method Insert is called.

Insert(parent_key, key, display_text, values)

To indicate insertion at the head of the tree, use a parent key of "". So, every top-level node in the tree will have a parent node = ""

This code creates a TreeData object and populates with 3 values

treedata = sg.TreeData()

treedata.Insert("", '_A_', 'A', [1,2,3])
treedata.Insert("", '_B_', 'B', [4,5,6])
treedata.Insert("_A_", '_A1_', 'A1', ['can','be','anything'])

Note that you can use the same values for display_text and keys. The only thing you have to watch for is that you cannot repeat keys.

When Reading a window the Table Element will return a list of rows that are selected by the user. The list will be empty is no rows are selected.

Icons on Tree Entries

If you wish to show an icon next to a tree item, then you specify the icon in the call to Insert. You pass in a filename or a Base64 bytes string using the optional icon parameter.

Here is the result of showing an icon with a tree entry.

image

Tab and Tab Group Elements

Tabs have been a part of PySimpleGUI since the initial release. However, the initial implementation applied tabs at the top level only. The entire window had to be tabbed. There with other limitations that came along with that implementation. That all changed in version 3.8.0 with the new elements - Tab and TabGroup. The old implementation of Tabs was removed in version 3.8.0 as well.

Tabs are another "Container Element". The other Container Elements include: * Frame * Column

You layout a Frame in exactly the same way as a Frame or Column elements, by passing in a list of elements.

How you place a Tab into a Window is different than Graph or Frame elements. You cannot place a tab directly into a Window's layout. It much first be placed into a TabGroup. The TabGroup can then be placed into the Window.

Let's look at this Window as an example:

tabbed 1

View of second tab:

tabbed 2

First we have the Tab layout definitions. They mirror what you see in the screen shots. Tab 1 has 1 Text Element in it. Tab 2 has a Text and an Input Element.

tab1_layout =  [[sg.T('This is inside tab 1')]]

tab2_layout = [[sg.T('This is inside tab 2')],
               [sg.In(key='in')]]

The layout for the entire window looks like this:

layout = [[sg.TabGroup([[sg.Tab('Tab 1', tab1_layout), sg.Tab('Tab 2', tab2_layout)]])],
              [sg.RButton('Read')]]

The Window layout has the TabGroup and within the tab Group are the two Tab elements.

One important thing to notice about all of these container Elements... they all take a "list of lists" at the layout. They all have a layout that starts with [[

You will want to keep this [[ ]] construct in your head a you're debugging your tabbed windows. It's easy to overlook one or two necessary ['s

As mentioned earlier, the old-style Tabs were limited to being at the Window-level only. In other words, the tabs were equal in size to the entire window. This is not the case with the "new-style" tabs. This is why you're not going to be upset when you discover your old code no longer works with the new PySimpleGUI release. It'll be worth the few moments it'll take to convert your code.

Check out what's possible with the NEW Tabs!

tabs tabs tabs

Check out Tabs 7 and 8. We've got a Window with a Column containing Tabs 5 and 6. On Tab 6 are... Tabs 7 and 8.

As of Release 3.8.0, not all of options shown in the API definitions of the Tab and TabGroup Elements are working. They are there as placeholders.

TabGroup(layout,
    tab_location=None,
    title_color=None,
    selected_title_color=None,
    background_color=None,
    font=None,
    change_submits=False,
    enable_events=False,
    pad=None,
    border_width=None,
    theme=None,
    key=None,
    tooltip=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
layout
tab_location (Default value = None)
title_color (Default value = None)
selected_title_color (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
change_submits If True, pressing Enter key submits window (Default value = False)
enable_events Turns on the element specific events.(Default value = False)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
border_width (Default value = None)
theme (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)
Tab(title,
    layout,
    title_color=None,
    background_color=None,
    font=None,
    pad=None,
    disabled=False,
    border_width=None,
    key=None,
    tooltip=None,
    right_click_menu=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
title
layout
title_color (Default value = None)
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
font (common_key) specifies the font family, size, etc (Default value = None)
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
disabled set disable state for element (Default value = False)
border_width (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
tooltip text, that will appear the you hover on (Default value = None)
right_click_menu see "Right Click Menus" (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)

Reading Tab Groups

Tab Groups now return a value when a Read returns. They return which tab is currently selected. There is also a change_submits parameter that can be set that causes a Read to return if a Tab in that group is selected / changed. The key or title belonging to the Tab that was switched to will be returned as the value

Methods

Update(values=None,
    key=None,
    value=None,
    text=None,
    icon=None,
    visible=None)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
values (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
value (Default value = None)
text (Default value = None)
icon (Default value = None)
visible change visibility of element (Default value = None)

Pane Element

New in version 3.20 is the Pane Element, a super-cool tkinter feature. You won't find this one in PySimpleGUIQt, only PySimpleGUI. It's difficult to describe one of these things. Think of them as "Tabs without labels" that you can slide.

pane3

Pane(pane_list,
    background_color=None,
    size=(None, None),
    pad=None,
    orientation="vertical",
    show_handle=True,
    relief="raised",
    handle_size=None,
    border_width=None,
    key=None,
    visible=True)

Parameters explained:

Name Meaning
pane_list
background_color color of background (Default value = None)
size (common_key) (w,h) w=characters-wide, h=rows-high (Default value = (None, None))
pad (common_key) Amount of padding to put around element (Default value = None)
orientation (Default value = 'vertical')
show_handle (Default value = True)
relief (Default value = RELIEF_RAISED)
handle_size (Default value = None)
border_width (Default value = None)
key (common_key) Used with window.FindElement and with return values (Default value = None)
visible set visibility state of the element (Default value = True)